Cambridge International Examinations AS Chemistry (AS Chemistry)
Chemistry is the study and science of the composition, structure, properties and reactions of matter, especially of atomic and molecular systems. The assessment objectives describe knowledge, skills and abilities over three main categories: 1) knowledge and understanding. 2) handling applying and evaluating information and 3) experimental skills and investigations.
KE20-24 prepare students for the AS Exam.
Materials: Chemistry 1 Cambridge Advanced Sciences
KE20 Physical Chemistry
This course illustrates how quantitative relationships can be established when different substances react. The course describes the type, number and distribution of the fundamental particles which make up an atom and the impact of this on some atomic properties. Central to the course are the ways by which chemical bonding occurs and the effect this can have on physical properties. This leads to a micro and macro coverage of particles in solids, liquids and gases and the interactions between them in the understanding of the physical properties of substances.
Keskeiset sisällöt: Relative masses of atoms and molecules. The mole and the Avagadro constant. The determination of relative atomic masses. The calculation of empirical and molecular formulae. Reacting masses and volumes of solutions and gases. Particles in an atom. The nucleus of the atom. Electrons: Energy levels, atomic orbitals, ionisation energy, electron affinity. Ionic bonding. Covalent bonding and dative covalent bonding including shapes of simple molecules. Intermolecular forces, electronegativity and bond properties. Metallic bonding. Bonding and physical properties. The gaseous state: Ideal and real gases and pV = n RT. The liquid state. The solid state: Lattice structures.
KE21 Physical chemistry
This course demonstrates why some reactions and processes are spontaneous and others are not. The course illustrates that many chemical reations are reversible and involve an equilibrium process. It emphasises the many factors that can affect an equilibrium and assess their importance in physical chemistry. Ionic equilibria are then discussed followed by a thorough investigation on the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Special emphasis is placed on the effect of temperature and the addition of a catalyst, to the progression of a chemical reaction. Students carry out their own investigation. Implementing their individual plan.
Keskeiset sisällöt: Enthalpy change H. Hess’ Law, including Born- Haber cycles. Redox processes: Electron transfer and changes in oxidation number. Chemical equilibria: reversible reactions; dynamic equilibria. Ionic equilibria. Simple rate equations; orders of reactions; rate constants. Effect of temperature on reaction rates; the concept of activation energy. Homogenous and heterogenous catalysts including enzymes.
KE22 Inorganic Chemistry
This course illustrates the regular patterns in chemical and physical properties of the elements in the periodic table. The course pays special attention to the elements of Group 2, as well as the physical and chemical properties of Group 17 (the halogens). Finally there is special attention to important industrial issues associated with the chemistry of Nitrogen and Sulphur. Individual project work and research should be carried out.
Keskeiset sisällöt: Periodicity of physical properties of the elements in the third period. Periodicity of chemical properties of the elements in the third period. Chemical periodicity of other elements. Similarities and trends in the properties of the Group 2 metals, magnesium to barium and their compounds. Some uses of Group 2 compounds. Physical properties of the Group 17 elements. The chemical properties of the elements and their hydrides. Some reactions of the halide ions. The reaction of chlorine with aqueous sodium hydroxide. Some important uses of the halogens and of halogen compounds. Nitrogen. Sulphur: the formation of atmospheric sulphur dioxide, its role in acid rain.
KE23/KE24 Organic Chemistry
The course develops students knowledge and understanding of the chemistry of carbon. The coverage includes nomenclature, structure of organic molecules, alkanes, alkenes, arenes. Halogen derivatives. Hydroxy compounds. Carbonyl compounds. Carboxylic acids and derivatives. Nitrogen compounds. Polymerisation. Analytical techniques.
Keskeiset sisällöt: Formulae, functional groups and the naming of organic compounds. Characteristic organic reactions. Shape of organic molecules. Isomerism: structural and stereoisomerism. Alkanes, Alkenes. Hydrocarbons as fuels. Halogenoalkanes and halogenoarenes. Relative strength of the C-Hal bond. Alcohols. Aldehydes and
ketones. Carboxylic acids. Esters. Infra red spectroscopy.